First of all, we will absolutely avoid saying monumentally idiotic things like "This experiment proves (or disproves) Newton's Second Law." Such statements merely advertise a total lack of understanding of scientific methods. No single experiment, and certainly no single high-school experiment (no offense intended, of course...), can prove or disprove anything. Only an accumulation of evidence can do that. What we can reasonably say, however, is that our results are consistent, not consistent, or inconclusive with regard to theory.
Here are the common types of experiments that we will encounter, along with some specific advice for analyzing them:
and, of course "What do I do if my results are inconclusive?".