Background:

The Indiana Academic Standards for Physics I contain two standards and four supporting themes. The standards are:

- Standard 1: The Principles of Physics
- Standard 2: Historical Perspectives of Physics

The supporting themes are:

- The Nature of Science and Technology
- Scientific Thinking
- The Mathematical World
- Common Themes

The Standards that Relate to Chapter 12 & 13 - Gravity are:

- The Properties of Matter
- P.1.4 Employ correct units in describing common physical quantities.

- The Relationships Between Motion and Force
- P.1.5 Use appropriate vector and scalar quantities to solve kinematics and dynamics problems in one and two dimensions.
- P.1.6 Describe and measure motion in terms of position, time, and the derived quantities of velocity and acceleration.
- P.1.7 Use Newton's Laws (e.g., F = ma) together with the kinematic equations to predict the motion of an object.
- P.1.8 Describe the nature of centripetal force and centripetal acceleration (including the formula

a = v2/r), and use these ideas to predict the motion of an object. - P.1.9 Use the conservation of energy and conservation of momentum laws to predict, both conceptually and quantitatively, the results of the interactions between objects.
- P.1.10 Demonstrate an understanding of the inverse square nature of gravitational and electrostatic forces.

- The Nature of Energy
- P.1.11 Recognize energy in its different manifestations, such as kinetic (KE =
*mv*2), gravitational potential (PE =*mgh*), thermal, chemical, nuclear, electromagnetic, or mechanical. - P.1.12 Use the law of conservation of energy to predict the outcome(s) of an energy transformation.
- The Nature of Electricity and Magnetism
- P.1.20 Describe electric and magnetic forces in terms of
**the field concept**...

- P.1.20 Describe electric and magnetic forces in terms of
- Historical Perspectives of Physics
- P.2.1 Explain that Isaac Newton created a unified view of force and motion in which motion everywhere in the universe can be explained by the same few rules. Note that his mathematical analysis of gravitational force and motion showed that planetary orbits had to be the very ellipses that Johannes Kepler had proposed two generations earlier.
- P.2.2 Describe how Newton’s system was based on the concepts of mass, force, and acceleration; his three laws of motion relating to them; and a physical law stating that the force of gravity between any two objects in the universe depends only upon their masses and the distance between them.
- P.2.3 Explain that the Newtonian model made it possible to account for such diverse phenomena as tides, the orbits of the planets and moons, the motion of falling objects, and the earth's equatorial bulge.

last update June 8, 2008 by JL Stanbrough